KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI PDFJune 30, 2020
Keratinophilic Fungi: Nature’s Keratin Degrading Machines! Their Isolation, Identification and Ecological Role. Rahul Sharma is presently working on his PhD on. Keratinophilic fungi are ecologically an important group of fungi which could be found in soil . Some groups of these fungi are causative. Forty eight soil samples were collected from 12 garbage waste soils of Ranchi, Jharkhand and screened for presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting.
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To receive news and publication updates for BioMed Research International, enter your email address in the box below. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, keratinophillic the original work is properly cited. Keratinophilic fungi are an important group of fungi that live in soil.
The aim of this study was to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of different parks in Shiraz. A total of soil samples from 43 parks were collected. Isolation of the fungi was performed by hair bait technique. The isolated colonies were identified by morphologic feature of macro- and microconidia and molecular method, using DNA sequence analysis.
Most of the fungi were isolated from the soils with the PH range of 7 to 8. Our study results showed that many keratinophilic fungi isolated from the parks soil are important for public health and children are an important group at a high risk of being exposed to these fungi. Keratinophilic kerarinophilic are ecologically an important group of fungi which could be found in soil [ 1 ].
Some groups of these fungi are causative agents of cutaneous fungal infections named dermatophytosis, and the other saprophyte fungi mainly represent hyalohyphomycosis [ 23 ].
The prevalence of these fungi depends on different factors, such as the presence of creatinine in the soil, pH, and geographical location [ 1 ]. Some of these fungi, such as dermatophytes, are well known to cause tinea infections which could be transmitted from soil to humans.
In general, soil could be considered as a reservoir for human infection.
Forests, kerayinophilic, park soils, and sediments of the rivers and oceans containing humus and organic materials are the best candidates for growth of keratinolytic and saprophytic fungi [ 4 ]. During the past years, many researchers reported about isolation of keratinophilic fungi around the world [ 5 — 14 ]. Also, a lot of reports were available about the isolation of geophilic dermatophytes and keratinophilic keratihophilic from the soils of many parts of Iran and also dermatophytosis due to the geophilic fungi during the last decade [ 15 — 18 ].
Nowadays, most people spend their time with their children in the parks for fun and are potentially at risk for direct contact with soil and being exposed to keratinophilic fungi [ 4 ].
Shiraz is one of the most populous cities of Iran and the capital of Fars province which is located in the southwest of Iran.
A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE OCCURRENCE OF KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI IN SOILS OF JAMAICA
Up to now, there were no data about keratinophilic fungi in soil of Fungo and no reports about the molecular identification of these fungi around Iran. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from soil of the popular parks in Shiraz by molecular and morphological analysis. In this descriptive study, soil samples were collected from various sites of 43 different parks around Shiraz during spring In doing so, — gram of soil was collected in sterile polyethylene bags and brought to laboratory for further ksratinophilic.
PH of each soil sample was measured after preparation of soil kerafinophilic one gram of soil to five mL deionized water using pH meter [ 1719 keratinopgilic. Then, several pieces of sterile healthy children hair fragments were dispersed over the surface of the soil samples and moistened with sterile distilled water supplemented with antibiotic solutions, chloramphenicol 0. The fungi were identified based on the conventional method colony morphology and macro- and microconidia characteristics and DNA-based identification techniques.
Molecular identification of the unknown isolates was achieved by DNA sequence analysis. DNA was extracted by using Lee keratinohilic [ 21 ] with mild modification. First, the frozen mycelium mass was smashed by mechanical pressure using sterile pounder and liquid nitrogen. The acquired powder was then mixed with lyses buffer and the DNA was extracted. Negative controls were also used in each set of reactions. The final products were analyzed by fubgi on 1.
PCR products bands on gel agarose are presented in Figure 1. From the soil samples, a total funi colonies of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 43 parks. The fungal isolates belonged to 22 genera as follows: More details about the species are presented in Table 1. Besides, eight species of Microsporum gypseum were isolated from four parks with soil pH between seven and nine and two species of Microsporum fulvum from one park with the same pH.
Most of the fungi were isolated from the soil samples with pH between 7 and 8 The study results revealed no significant correlation between keratinophiliv pH and fungal species. More details about the isolates and soil pH keratinophulic presented in Table 2. Keratinophilic fungi play an important role in the natural degradation of keratinized residues in the soil [ 2425 ].
Some types of these fungi, such as geophilic dermatophytes, live ffungi soil and could be transmitted to humans as well as animals and cause cutaneous fungal infections [ 2627 ]. Parks are among the popular public places for the people to spend their time and have fun with their family. Our study revealed the presence of keratinophilic fungi, such as dermatophytes, in the soil of Shiraz parks.
Although nondermatophyte fungi isolates were more common than dermatophytes in the present study, M. These parks potentially have a high risk for transmission of fungal infections. Previously, these fungi were isolated from the soil samples of different parts of Iran [ 28 — 31 ]. Some species of AspergillusFusarium solaniand Bipolaris spicifera are the causative agents of mycotic keratitis [ 32 ]. Our study showed that the genus Fusarium was the first dominant fungus in the soil of Shiraz, which is in agreement with the other studies conducted on the issue.
The second fngi common species isolates in our study were Chrysosporium and Penicillium.
Chrysosporium species have been reported to be the causative agents of disseminated diseases [ 33 ]. Chrysosporium tropicum was reported from comb lesion in two different breeds of chicken in India [ 34 ].
In this study, molecular method was utilized for identification of keratinophilic fungi for the first time in Iran. We could isolate and identify some genera of fungi, such as Bionectria spp. The genus Bionectria is endophytic and has great potential for medicinal and agricultural applications [ 35 ]. Bionectria species are known as a destructive mycoparasite and grow inside the fungal host hyphae.
They are used as a biocontrol agent of plant-pathogenic fungi and are infrequently isolated from dead insects. Besides, they are known as a parasite of living nematodes, ticks, and myxomycetes [ 3536 ]. Tritirachium species are an insect pathogen whose natural habitats are soil and decaying plant materials. These fungi are occasionally isolated from head and nail infections [ 3738 ]. There are many reports regarding the fungal diseases caused by this fungus [ 39 — 41 ].
Scedosporium apiospermum is a common soil fungus with a worldwide distribution. Environmental isolations have been made from sewage sludge, polluted streams, and manure of poultry and cattle. In Australia, Cooley et al.
Invasive infections in normal patients are usually caused by traumatic implantation. So, fungal infections could acquire or spread through playgrounds in parks. The current study investigated the relationship between the frequency of fungi and the soils pH.
Many researchers stated that keratinophilic fungi could not be found in the soils with low pH levels 3—4. Moreover, Asahi et al. In the present study, all the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from the soils with pH between 6 and 9.
These findings have been confirmed by other studies as well. These areas potentially have a high risk for causing cutaneous fungal infections in humans and animals and could be considered as a source of these infections. This study was supported by the Research Vice-Chancellor, Grant no.
Keivanshekouh for improving the use of English in the paper. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts.
Table of Contents Alerts. Introduction Keratinophilic fungi are ecologically an important group of fungi which could be found in soil [ 1 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Sample Collection In this descriptive study, soil samples were collected from various sites of 43 different parks around Shiraz during spring Measuring of Soil pH PH of each soil sample was measured after preparation of soil suspension one gram of soil to five mL deionized water using pH meter [ 1719 ].
Data Analysis The study data were analyzed through Fisher exact test and Chi-square test. Results PCR products bands on gel agarose are presented in Figure 1. Frequency of keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils with different PH. Agarose gel electrophoresis and PCR products bands; lines 1 and 2 markerlines 3—12 upand 2—8 down are PCR products of many unknown fungi.
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