July 23, 2020 0 By admin

Efectos del plomo sobre el organismo. El plomo es un metal tóxico que nuestros organismos no pueden utilizar. El envenenamiento con plomo. Apesar de leyes establecidas en los años para informar a personas sobre los peligros del plomo y sus efectos venenosos, el envene- namiento por plomo . El plomo puede dañar el cerebro y el sistema nervioso. Algunos de los efectos del envenenamiento del plomo no tienen cura. El plomo en el cuerpo de un niño .

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Lead is one of the most important environmental pollution which is toxic to many organ systems. D-penicillamine D-P is a chelator drug which is used for treatment of lead toxicity for several years. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of D-P in reducing the effects of lead on hematological indices. This study was done on 36 male adult, weeks albino Wistar rats in Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. At first male adult rats were exposed to lead acetate in their drinking water.

After 8 weeks, 6 rats were selected and blood samples were prepared to assess the effects of lead toxicity. The remained lead exposed rats were divided into recovery and treatment groups where distilled water and D-P was administered for them, respectively. After lead exposure, red blood cell count increased slightly, but hemoglobin and hematocrite were decreased.

After recovery period, most of parameters were close to normal while there were no significant differences between recovery and treatment groups. This study showed that hematologic effects of lead are reversible and D-P administration do not play an important role in subchronic lead intoxication. Al inicio, las ratas machos adultas fueron expuestas al acetato de plomo en el agua de beber. Lead is a dangerous heavy metal which is widely spread in the environment.

Lead content in the air, food and tap water has increased several folds during recent years due to extensive use of this metal in petrol, paints, battery and other industries Tuormaa, Despite of attempts for reducing the exposure to this metal, there are still some reports of cases with severe lead toxicity Hershko, ; Roche et al.

On the other hand, chronic lead poisoning is a problem which threats mankind’s life and seems to be an unknown reason for some diseases during aging Coyle et al. The toxic effects of lead on blood indices are well known. Significant decrease in RBC count, hematocrit Hct and hemoglobin Hb were seen in rats and human with high blood lead levels.

D-Penicillamine D-P is a chelator drug which is used for treatment of lead toxicity for several years Lyle. However, long period of administration and side effects of D-P have complicated its use in the treatment of lead poisoning Shannon et al. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of subchronic oral lead intoxication on blood indices of adult rats and efficacy of D-penicillamine in reducing these effects.

This study consists of two protocols. The first protocol was conducted to assess the effects of lead intoxication on hematological parameters of rats. In the second one, reversibility of these effects and the efficacy of D-P administration were evaluated and compared.

Samples and blood analysis. Blood samples were collected from their hearts and transferred to lead free polyethylene tubes containing EDTA.

Among P-values those less than 0. After one week of adaptation, animals were divided randomly into three groups as follow: A subsequent amount ploomo 5 N HCL was added to lead acetate solution to preclude the precipitation of lead salts Ronis et al.


The pH of the solutions was 5. At the end of 8th week, treatments were discontinued and rats drink tap water for one day. Then six rats were selected from each group all positive control ratsand sacrificed after anesthesia. The remained six negative control and 12 test rats enrolled in the second study.

Test rats were divided into two groups of six animals. Distilled water was administered for six Pb exposed rats for seven weeks recovery groupas well as control group. Then D-P treatment was discontinued and all rats drink tap water for one day and sacrificed after anesthesia.

After ploko weeks of lead intoxication, small increase in RBC count was seen in test group, which was not significant compared with negative and positive control groups.

Hb and Hct levels were decreased by 5. Intpxicacion significant reduction in MCV There was no significant difference between negative and positive control groups in none of variables Table I. After recovery or D-P treatment, RBC count was higher in both groups compared with control group but this difference was not significant. When only Pb inyoxicacion rats were compared with rats in recovery or D-P treatment groups, RBC count and Hct level were higher in both of recovered and D-P treated animals.

Data are shown in Table III. In this study, subchronic lead intoxication caused a slight increase in the number of RBCs while Hb and Hct were increased. Increased level of RBC count which was observed in lead exposed rats in our study was reported previously by other researchers lavicoli et al. It may be due to low hemoglobin production because of lead induced disturbance of heme biosynthesis Wildman et al.

In intoxicafion study, may be bone marrow could overcome lead toxicity because of subchronic exposure which was not at high dose, but it suppressed the production of Hb. Low Hb level intoxicaxion result in reduced oxygen transfer by RBCs. Also, tissue hypoxia is a possible mechanism for high production of RBCs in moderate lead poisoning.

MCV and MCH levels were decreased after lead intoxication in our study that it intoxxicacion in agreement with several studies Noori et plmoo. In this study, lead intoxication had the same effects on blood indices that were observed previously in other pllmo Alexa et al. It is believed that lead disturbs intestinal absorption of some essential trace elements involved in RBC activities Antonowicz etal.

So, discontinuation of lead exposure may result in improvement of affected parameters by improved absorption of these trace elements. In our study, although there were differences between normal ranges and ranges that were seen in rats of recovery group, but it seems that they were going to be improved after recovery period. In our studyno obvious differences were observed between recovery and treatment groups after D-P treatment.

The exact mechanism of the action of lead on platelets is unknown. However, Noori have found that platelet count inntoxicacion significantly after ploko weeks of oral lead exposure.

Also in previous studies, some cases of thrombocytopenia after lead intoxication followed by thrombocytosis have been reported Sudakova et al. There are evidences about side effects of D-P, including adverse reactions, abdominal pain, depression of platelet count, leukopenia and etc. We did not lntoxicacion signs of D-P induced impairments in measured blood parameters in D-P treated animals. High RDW levels may reflect a disruption in erythropoiesis that it ontoxicacion occur during some hematological disorders, such as anemia and iron deficiency Laso et al.


Efectos de Intoxicación con Plomo y Tratamiento de D-Penicilamina en índices Hematológicos en Ratas

There is evidence about increase of PDW in sickle cell anemia Amin et al. Although impairment of intestinal absorption of trace elements, weight loss and erythrocyte abnormalities are possible mechanisms of platelet dysfunction, the exact mechanism should be studied more. According to our hypothesis, iron deficiency may be due to intestinal malabsorption caused disruption of heme biosynthesis and low oxygen transfer might have resulted in compensatory increase in the rate of RBC production, which can be a possible reason for high RDW levels.

These findings open a new window toward the understanding of the cardiovascular and cerebro vascular risks of lead exposure due to platelet dysfunction. Of course more studies are needed to explain that how lead poisoning interacts with coagulation and what are the potential risks. After recovery or treatment, RDW was still significantly higher than normal. It might be due to high level of RBC production after the discontinuation of lead exposure.

However, we observed that these changes in PDW and MPV were reversible and they were close to normal after both of treatment and recovery periods. In conclusion the present study showed that lead induced hematological changes were reversible after a period of recovery and D-penicillamine treatment did not effect in the improvement of impaired parameters affected by lead intoxication.

The authors wish to thank Dr.

La intoxicación por plomo

MS Asghari and Mr Bazoori for their full scientific and sincere cooperation. Chronic lead poisoning- a” forgotten”cause of anemia. Platelet distribution width PDW is increased in vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease. The efficacy of chelation therapy plommo factors influencing mortality in lead intoxicated petrol sniffers. Severe lead pkomo in the plastic industry: Red blood cell volume distribution width RDW in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis.

Toxicity of lead acetate to female rabbits after chronic subcutaneous administration.

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Efectos nocivos del plomo para la salud del hombre

Effects of ingested lead on concentration of blood and tissue lead in intoxicaion. G; Hogue, W; Skinner, R. Sci, 6 2 2Efficacy and toxicity of D-penicillamine in low-level lead poisoning. Adverse effects of reduced-dose D-Penicillamine in children with mild-to-moderate lead poisoning. Peripheral blood and bone marrow cell status of white rats with long-term lead exposure.

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