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: Fundamentals of Computers: Table of contents Chapter 1. Understanding the Fundamentals of Computers: E. Balagurusamy zoom_in. Read FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS book reviews & author details and more at This item:FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS by E Balagurusamy. E Balagurusamy Object Oriented Programming With C++. PDF download. Download 1 file. E Balagurusamy Object Oriented Programming With.

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Published by Gary Kelly Newman Modified over 2 years ago. Understanding the Computer 2. Computer Organisation and Architecture 3. Memory and Storage Systems 4. Data Communications and Networks The Internet and World Wide Web.

A computer is balxgurusamy electronic machine that takes input from the user, processes the given input and fundamemtals output in the form of useful information. A computer includes various devices: The unique capabilities and characteristics of a computer: Garbage-In, Garbage-Out Dumb machine.

Sand table, Abacus, … Automated Computing Devices: A professor of mathematics a the Cambridge University is considered to be the father of modern computer.

Use Ultra Large Scale Integration technology that allows almost ten million electronic components to be fabricated on one small chip. Designed to be used by individuals. Can handle more data and more input and output than micro computers.

A very large computer Super Computers: The fastest type of computer that can perform complex operations at a very high speed.

The arithmetic operations can be addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. It maintains the sequence of operations being performed by the CPU. They are high-speed memory locations used for holding instructions, data and intermediate results that are currently being processed.

The interface unit acts as an intermediary between the processor and the device controllers of various peripheral devices in the computer system. The CPU retrieves the instruction from the main memory of the computer system. Breaking down the instruction into different parts, so that it can be easily understood before being processed by the CPU.

The result computed in the execution phase is either sent to the memory or to an output device.

Fund Of Computers – Balagurusamy – Google Books

Modern computer systems use bit data buses for data transfer. Most computers use a group of eight bits, known as a byte, to represent a character.

The CPU can identify each cell by its address. Computer memories are often rated in terms of their capacity to store information. Typically, capacities are described using the unit of byte as follows: It is the main memory of the computer system that stores the data temporarily and allows the data to be accessed in any order. SRAM uses a number of transistors to store a single bit of digital information.

The DRAM needs to be continuously refreshed with power supply because the capacitor has the tendency to get discharged. DRAM retains the data for a very short span of time, even after the power supply is switched off. The data can be easily read from this type of memory but cannot be changed. ROM is most commonly used in devices such as calculators, laser printers, etc. ROM does not allow the random access of data, and allows sequential access of data. PROM is reliable and stores the data permanently without making any change in it.


It is mostly used in video games and electronic dictionaries. This memory is mainly used in the memory cards of mobile phones, digital cameras and ipods for storing data. The main objective of the storage system is to permanently store data. The storage systems can be classified as follows: Magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, hard disks, floppy disks are examples of magnetic storage systems. Can store any type of data, such as text, audio, video, image.

The plastic tapes with magnetic coating that are used for storing the data. They are similar to the normal recording tapes.

The data stored on the magnetic tapes can be accessed using the sequential access method. A flat disk that is covered with magnetic coating for holding information.

Fundamentals of Computers

It is used to store digital information in the form of small and magnetised needles. These needles help in encoding a balagurusajy bit of information by getting polarized in one direction represented by 1, and opposite direction represented by 0. It allows the random access of data and provides the facility of erasing funadmentals re- recording the data as many times as required. The optical storage devices are either read-only or writable. Do not use magnetic and optical medium to store data.

Instead, use the semiconductor devices.

Textbook E. Balagurusamy, Fundamentals of Computers, Mc Graw Hill.

Contains all the properties of hard disk drives to store the data and use solid-state memory, which has no moving parts. Temporary and permanent memory. We can provide the input to a computer in two ways: We can use a keyboard to type data and text and execute commands. A standard keyboard consists of the following groups of keys: The alphanumeric keys include the number keys and alphabet keys.

Arranged in a row on the top of the keyboard. Help perform specific tasks, such as searching a file or refreshing a web page; 3 Central keys: Used for controlling the movement of cursor and screen display. Located on the right side of the keyboard.

With the help of pointing devices, we can easily select the icons, menus, windows, etc on the Graphical User Interface.

Some of the commonly used pointing devices are: The most commonly used types of mouse are: The basic task of a scanning devices is to convert an image or the textual data into digital data, i.

The resultant matrix is known as bit map and is displayed on the screen. The CCD consists of a series of light receptors, which are sensitive to the variation in the light frequency. As the frequency of light changes, these scanning devices detect the change and the output obtained after scanning also gets accordingly changed.


The PMT consists of a photocathode, which is a photosensitive surface used for generating the electrons. PMT is used for identifying the light emitted by the weak signals. Under this glass pane, there is xenon light and a CCD, which consists of an array of red, green and blue filters. The resolution image of these scanners is very high, ranges form dpi to dpi.

These scanners are also known as film scanners as they can easily scan the original image of the film. The dark areas appear light and the light areas appear dark. The optical recognition devices basically make use of optical scanner for inputting data. Unlike keyboards, the optical recognition devices do not enter the data by pressing the keys. They help the users in saving a lot of time.

Commonly used optical recognition devices are: These devices prove to be of great use in recognizing characters in question sheets, enrolment forms, registration forms, employee payroll, etc. Most popularly, the OMR devices are used for scanning the documents having multiple choices as in the question papers used in schools, colleges, etc.

These devices were specially blaagurusamy for the banking operations. The details on the bank cheques, such as cheque number, bank and branch code are fundaentals with the magnetic. The digital camera consists of a built-in computer, which helps in recording the images electronically. The following are the main features of fundaentals digital camera: Capturing and storing thousands of images on a single memory chip Editing as well as deleting the images Recording the video clip with sound Showing the just recorded video clip on the camera screen.

The quality of the pictures captured by a digital camera depends on the resolution factor. The more the resolution of a digital camera, the better is the image quality. The electrical signals are then converted into the machine readable code.

The voice recognition system only recognises the voice of the speaking person rather than what he speaks. The voice recognition devices are used for various purposes such as dictation, training air-traffic controllers, etc. These systems allow users to communicate with computers directly without using a keyboard or mouse. The sensors are most commonly used in data acquisition systems. The data fundaentals system collects the electrical signals from various devices and converts them into the digital signals for further assessment.

The following are the most popularly used media input devices: