CINARA CUPRESSI PDFJune 17, 2020
Cinara cupressi is a brownish soft-bodied insect classified as an aphid. It has been discovered around the world feeding on various trees from. THE EFFICACY OF TREATMENTS WITH WATER EXTRACTS ON Cinara cupressi (Buckton). Conference Paper (PDF Available) · August with 34 Reads. Cypress aphid. Cinara cupressi. Cypress aphid | Cinara cupressi. Common name: Cypress aphid. Scientific name: Cinara cupressi. Alternative common names.
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Biology, images, analysis, design Cinara cupressi Cypress aphid On this page: Cinara cupressi apterae see first picture below are mainly orange brown to yellowish brownwith blackish markings diverging back from the thorax. There are only hairs on the basal half of antennal segment six cf.
Cinara fresai which has hairs cianra this position. In life the dorsum is dusted with pale grey wax making a pattern of rather interrupted cross-bands. The whole aphid is clothed with fine hairs. There is also a rather indistinct blackish band between the black siphuncular cones. The distal parts of the femora and the bases of the tibiae are dark brown or black cf. Cinara tujafilina which has the femora pale, and tibiae wholly pale or dark only at apices.
The body length of Cinara cupressi apterae is 1. The alate see second picture above has a dark thorax, an abdomen similar to the aptera and prominent black siphuncular cones. The micrographs below dorsal and ventral show that scleroites on the dorsum are very small or absent.
The rostrum is relatively short, although that of the fourth instar nymph first image below is longer in relation to body length than that of the adult. Cinara cupressi is found most commonly on cypress Cupressus spp.
Oviparae and alate males occur in October in Europe. The cypress aphid is considered to be one of the world’s worst invasive alien species according to the criteria used by the international Union for the Conservation of Nature.
It occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Taxonomy Populations thought to have originated in the Middle East and introduced to Africa and also the UK were formerly classified using multivariate analysis as a separate species, Cinara cupressivora Watson et al. Geographical range was generally the most straightforward and accurate way to differentiate Cinara cupressi and Cinara cupressivorawith Britain as the only country where their ranges overlapped.
Life cycle In temperate climates, eggs laid on cypress the previous autumn hatch in spring. At this time of year only females are present and they reproduce parthenogenetically without matinggiving birth to live young. There are two adult forms – winged and wingless. Adults and juveniles are well camouflaged against tree bark. Numbers build over the summer, but as cooler weather approaches in autumn, both males and females are produced.
These mate and the resultant females oviparae produce eggs instead of live nymphs. The eggs are laid in rough areas on twigs and foliage where they overwinter. Several generations are produced per year. In warm regions such as Africa, the aphid does not overwinter as an egg; instead, parthenogenetic reproduction continues all year.
Cinara cupressi (cypress aphid) identification, images, ecology
This, along with the absence of natural enemies, has allowed cypress aphid populations to increase rapidly in countries where the species has been introduced. Ant attendance Ants may feed on the honeydew produced by the aphids. They have also been observed transporting the aphids from cupresi part of the tree to another, thus creating new areas of infestation.
Natural enemies Cinara cupressi is liberally coated in wax which discourages many predators.
However we have found syrphid larvae consuming them see picture below. The pupa of a predatory syrphid surrounded by surviving Cinara cupressi is shown in the picture below.
Other aphids on same host: Damage and curpessi The cypress aphid can cause severe direct feeding damage resulting in dieback and sometimes death of host conifers with associated economic, environmental and aesthetic costs. The saliva they produce is phytotoxic and leads to necrosis in the phloem which subsequently results in the twig withering see pictures below.
The foliage also gets covered in honeydew and then mould which inhibits photosynthesis. The impact on this on the plant depends on tree stress and weather factors. In Britain the main damage is limited to domestic garden hedges.
One tree species which is especially sensitive to feeding by the cypress aphid is Cupressus lusitanica. This species is highly favoured as a plantation species because of its rapid growth rate and excellent form. In Kenya, this species comprises around half of the country’s total industrial forest plantation area.
Loss of these plantations could have serious effects on Kenya’s domestic wood supply. Also, Cupressus lusitanica is a key agroforestry species widely planted for wind-breaks, as a source of fuelwood and as living fences and hedges. In Malawi, Cinara cupressi damages the endangered national tree, Widdringtonia nodiflora Ciesla cinar In Chile affected native forest species include Austrocedrus chilensis and Fitzroya cupressoides Montalva et al.
Chemical control, for example treatments containing pirimicarb, cupressk initially tried against Cinara cupressi but is only practical for ornamental trees and hedges. Even then it must be done at the first sign of an attack or the damage to the phloem will already have been done. Candidates include Pauesia cupressobii and Pauesia juniperorumwhich have been found attacking Cinara juniperi. Similarly Pauesia juniperorum has been used in Chile. Efforts are being made to supplement the level of control with other natural enemies including predators and fungi.
Cuprwssi have made provisional identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens.
We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the summarized taxonomic information we have presented. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. Cypress aphids, Cinara cupressia new pest of conifers in eastern and southern Africa. Comparative studies on populations of Pauesia juniperorum Hymenoptera: Braconidaea biological control agent for Cinara cupressivora Hemiptera: Bulletin of Entomological Research.
Cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi sensu lato)
El pulgon del cipres en Chile: Bosque 31 2 Status cupresis impact of invasive conifer pests in Africa. Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests. Les Cinara du Pakistan. Le sous-genre Cupressobium Hemiptera, Aphidinae, Lachninae. Revue francaise d’entomologie 25 2 Biogeography of the Cinara cupressi complex Hemiptera: Aphididae on Cupressaceae, with description cinxra a pest species introduced into Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research 89 3: Except where otherwise specified, all text and images on this page are copyright InfluentialPoints under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.