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Home Technology Pinel basics ch Post on Jan 2. The following are prohibited by law: Lateralization of Function Major differences between the function of the left and right cerebral hemispheres Cerebral commissures connect the 2 halves of the brain Split-brain patients what happens when the connections are severed?

Pinel basics ch14 – [PPT Powerpoint]

Cerebral Lateralization of Function Aphasia deficit in language comprehension or production due to brain damage usually on the left Brocas area left inferior prefrontal cortex damage leads to expressive aphasia Apraxia difficulty performing movements when asked to so out of context also a consequence of damage on the left 5. Cerebral Lateralization of Function Aphasia and apraxia associated with damage to left hemisphere Language and voluntary movement seem to be controlled by one half of the brain usually the left Suggests that one hemisphere is dominant, controlling these functions 6.

Tests of Cerebral Lateralization Determining which hemisphere is dominant Sodium amytal test Anesthetize one and check for language ericion Dichotic listening Report more digits heard by the dominant half Functional brain imaging f MRI or PET used to see which half is active when doing a language test 7. Speech Laterality, Handedness, and Sex Dextrals: The Split Brain Corpus callosum largest cerebral commissure Transfers learned information from one hemisphere to the other When cut, each hemisphere functions independently Biopsicollgia split-brain cats transect corpus callosum and optic chiasm so that visual information cant cross 9.


The Split Brain Split-Brain CatsEach hemisphere can learn independently Split-brain cats with one eidcion patched Learn task as well as controls No memory or savings demonstrated when the patch was transferred Intact cats or those with an intact corpus callosum or optic chiasm learning transfers between hemispheres Similar findings with split-brain monkeys Testing Split-Brain Patients Hemispheres of Split-Brain Patients Function Independently Left hemisphere can tell what biopsucologia has seen, right hemisphere can show it.

Studies of split-brain patients: Present a biopsicooogia to the right visual field left brain Left hemisphere can tell you what it was Right hand can show you, left hand cant Present a picture to the left visual field right brain Subject will report that they do not know what it was Left hand can show you what it was, right cant Cross-Cuing Allows the two hemispheres of a split-brain subject to communicate with each otherindirectly.


Gazzanigas color test showed that neurological patients make use of various strategies, including interpreting their own physical cues, to correct their answers. Learning 2 Things at Once Each hemisphere of a split-brain can learn independently and simultaneously Presented with 2 different visual stimuli Helping-hand phenomenon the hand that knows may correct the other Chimeric figures task Dual Mental Functioning and Conflict in Split-Brain Patients In most split-brain patients, the left hemisphere seems to control most activities.

In a few patients, the right hemisphere takes a more active role in controlling behavior, which can create conflicts between the left and right hemispheres.

Peter, the Split-Brain Patient Differences Between the Hemispheres For many functions the hemispheres do not differ and where there are differences, these tend to be minimal Lateralization of function is statistical, not absolute Right hemisphere has some language abilities Fdicion of Lateralization of Function Right hemisphere superiority Spatial ability Emotion Musical ability Some memory tasks Left hemisphere superior in controlling ipsilateral movement Right hemisphere superiority Spatial ability Better at matching 3-D image with 2-D Emotion Better at perceiving facial expressions and mood Musical ability Better at perception of melodies Some memory tasks Nonverbal material Learning tasks where context doesnt matter Broad categories are not lateralized individual tasks may be Better to consider lateralization of constituent cognitive processes individual cognitive elements Example left is better at judging above or below, right at how close 2 things edidion Anatomical Brain Asymmetries Planum temporale Wernickes Area Temporal lobe, posterior lateral fissure Language comprehension Heschls gyrus – primary auditory cortex Frontal operculum Brocas Area Near face area of primary motor cortex Language production Anatomical Brain Asymmetries Theories of Cerebral Aysmmetry All propose that its better to have brain areas that do similar things be in the same hemisphere Analytic-synthetic theory 2 modes of thinking, analytic left and synthetic right Vague and essentially untestable the darling of pop psychology Theories of Cerebral Aysmmetry Motor theory Left controls fine movements speech is just a category of movement Left damage may produce speech and motor deficits Linguistic theory Primary role of left edicon language Evolution of Lateralization of Function Nonhuman primates tend to use their right hand for certain tasks Hand preference is under genetic influence in chimps Indicates tool use was not the major factor in the evolution of lateralization Lateralization of aspects of communcation and emotion also seen in biopsicolgoia species Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model Can it predict the deficits produced by damage to various parts of the cortex?

Surgery that destroys only Brocas area has no lasting effects on speech Removal of much of Wernickes area does not have any lasting effects on speech Ediicion argue that failure to support the model is due to pathology-related reorganization Important roles played Brocas and Wernickes many aphasics have damage in these areas Anterior damage associated with expressive rdicion and posterior biopsicollgia receptive No support for more specific predictions Damage limited to identified areas has little lasting effect on language Brain damage in other areas can produce aphasia Pure aphasias expressive OR receptive rare Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language Language-related biopsicologis are mediated by activity in brain areas involved in the specific cognitive processes required biopsicolobia the behaviors.


Brain areas involved in language have other functions.

Brain areas involved in language are likely to be small, widely distributed, and specialized. Functional Brain Imaging and Language f MRI and reading Bavelier determines the extent of cortical involvement in reading Use a sensitivef MRI machine to record activity during reading of sentences Areas of activity were tiny and spread out.

Active areas varied between subjects and trials. Functional Brain Imaging and Language Functional Brain Imaging and Language PET and naming Images of famous faces, animals, and tools Activity while judging image orientation subtracted from activity while naming Left temporal lobe areas activated by naming varied with category Activity seen well beyond Wernickes Area Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia Dyslexia reading difficulties not due to some other deficit Developmental dyslexia apparent when learning to read Acquired dyslexia due to brain damage Developmental Dyslexia Brain differences identified, but none seems to play a role in the disorder Multiple types of developmental dyslexia possibly multiple causes Differences could be due to reading problems, not the cause of difficulties Developmental Dyslexia Various subtle visual, auditory, and motor deficits are commonly seen Are these deficits the primary problem do they cause the dyslexia?

Pinel basics ch14

Genetic component yet the disorder is also influenced by culture More English speakers are dyslexic than Italian due to English being more complex Acquired Dyslexia – Deep and Surface Two procedures for reading aloud Lexical using stored information about words Phonetic sounding out Surface dyslexia edifion procedure lost, cant recognize words Deep dyslexia phonetic procedure lost, cant sound out unfamiliar words Acquired Dyslexia – Deep and Surface Wheres the damage?

Deep dyslexia extensive damage to left-hemisphere language areas How is it that lexical abilities are spared? Lexical abilities may be housed in left language areas that are spared Lexical abilities may be mediated by the right hemisphere Evidence for both exists.