ATURAN STURGES PDF

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Canoe slalom previously known as whitewater slalom atuean a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. The other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint. Wildwater canoeing is a non-Olympic paddlesport.

The first World Championships were held in in Switzerland. From tothe championships were held every odd-numbered year and have been held annually in non- Summer Olympic years since Folding kayaks were used from to ; and in the early s, aturaj were made of fiberglass and nylon. Boats were heavy, usually over 65 pounds 30 kilos. With the advent of kevlar and carbon fiber being used in sturyes s, the widths of the boats were reduced by the ICF, and the boats were reduced in volume stjrges pass the gates, and boats have become much lighter and faster.

From toall World Championships were held in Europe. It has been a regular Olympic sport since In during the Tokyo Olympics, C2 men loses its status as an official olympic event and is to be replaced by C1 women. Each gate consists of two poles hanging from a wire strung across the river. There are numbered gates in a course, of which must be upstream gates, and they are colored as either green downstream or red upstreamindicating the direction they must be negotiated.

Upstream gates are always placed in eddieswhere the water is flat or moving slightly upstream; the paddler enters an eddy from the main current and paddles upstream through the gate. Downstream gates may also be placed in eddies, to increase the difficulty, and downstream gates in the current can be offset to alternating sides of the current, requiring rapid turns in fast-moving water.

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Canoe slalom

Most slalom courses stirges 80 to seconds to complete for the fastest paddlers. Depending on the level of competition, difficulty of the course, degree of water turbulence. In international competitions World Cups, World Championships, Olympic Games each competitor does two runs in the qualification round, called the “heats”; the time of the faster run gives the qualification result.

Depending on the number of participants in the event, 10 aruran 40 boats make it through to the semi-final; this consists of one run on a different course.

Canoe slalom – Wikipedia

The fastest semi-final boats, the number determined by the number of participants, make it through to the final, where they navigate the semi-final course once more. Their sturgws within the final group is based on the time of that last run alone. If the competitor’s boat, paddle or body touches either pole of the gate, a time penalty of two seconds is added.

If the competitor misses a gate completely, deliberately pushes the gate to pass through, goes through the gate in the wrong direction or upside-down, or goes through it in the wrong order, a second penalty is given. Only one penalty can be incurred on each gate, and this will be taken as the highest one.

In the s and early s, boats were made of heavy fiberglass and nylon. The boats were high volume and weighed over 30 pounds 14 kilos. In the early s Kevlar was used and the boats became lighter as well as the volume of the boats was being reduced almost every year surges new designs were made.

A minimum boat weight was introduced to equalize competition when super light materials began to affect race results. The ICF also reduced the width of the boats in the early aturah. When racers began making lower-volume boats, the gates were raised in response to fears that new boats would be of such low volume as to create a hazard to the paddler.

Their low-volume sterns allow the boat to slice through the water in a quick turn, or “pivot”. Usually boats are made with carbon fiberKevlar and fiberglass cloth, stufges epoxy or polyester resin to hold the layers together. Foam sandwich construction in between layers of carbonKevlaror Aramid is another technique in use to increase the stiffness atkran slalom boats. In the minimum length of these boats was reduced from 4 sturgds down to 3.

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The shorter length also allows for easier navigation and less boat damage in aruran smaller manmade river beds that are prevalent in current elite competitions.

Boat design progression is rather limited year to year. There are rules governing almost every aspect of slalom equipment used in atuarn competition, including sponsor advertisement. Some of these rules vary from country to country; each national canoe and kayak governing body publishes its own variation of the rules. Some courses are technical, containing many rocks. Others are on stretches containing fewer rocks and larger waves and holes.

Since then, slalom paddling has been a regular Olympic event in the following locations: The Olympics in Augsburg were held on an artificial whitewater course. The Augsburg Eiskanal set the stage for the future of artificial course creation. With the exception of the altered river bed of the Ocoee River inevery Olympic venue has been a manmade concrete channel.

Since the late s, artificial course creation has surged; now most countries that field Olympic slalom teams have more than one artificial course to train on. Artificial river creation has evolved and new courses have fewer issues than some of the initial designs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please aturaan improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced sturbes may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved July 24, Retrieved 29 November Retrieved July 21, Summer Olympics Male medalists Female medalists Venues. Canoe paddle strokes Eskimo Rescue Kayak roll Portage. Canoeing and kayaking venues. Paralympic sports and Winter Olympic sports. Retrieved from ” https: Canoe slalom Canoeing disciplines Summer Olympic disciplines. Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references.

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