APHIS GOSSYPII TAXONOMIA PDFJune 17, 2020
Background. The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution. Lucid key to Important Aphids. DownloadAphis gossypii taxonomia pdf. If I do I will need one of these. So please let me know what to do from here. Printing files across the.
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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Biological Control Despite a number of experimental studies on the natural enemies of A.
One successful study using biological control was in Egypt. Two field releases of Chrysoperla carnea at a ratio of 1: Cultural Control Potts and Gunadi reported a decrease in A. To achieve the reduction, the onions had to be planted within 0. However, intercropping poses a problem when the minor crop harbours a disease of the primary crop.
Such a system has been documented in Taiwan where bananas were interplanted with cucumbers an alternative host for Banana mosaic virus Tsai et al. A similar effect also occurs when alternative hosts of aphid and virus are in neighbouring fields Tsai et al.
In cotton, an unusual approach was to top the plants after boll opening. This removed the top leaves where aphids fed, and thereby reduced contamination of bolls below these leaves. Topping was done by hand, using a pruning knife to remove the terminal spray of each plant Deguine et al.
Host-Plant Resistance Glabrate cotton supported fewer aphids than more pubescent cotton Dunnam and Clark, ; Weathersbee et al. However, pubescence has the opposite effect on A.
Greater trichome density resulted in fewer aphids and less virus disease in ashgourd, Benincasa hispida Khan et al. Many crops have some level of physiological resistance to A. The causes for resistance were examined gossjpii in muskmelons and cucumbers Ebert and Cartwright, Resistance has also been documented in okra Uthamasamy et al.
While host plant resistance is easily classified into three categories, the cause-effect relationships are not often clear because studies focus on one part toxicity and ignore other aspects that may be correlated genetically linked, or correlated within the study plants but without a genetic basis.
Aphis gossypii – Wikipedia
Differences in trichome density and differences in toxins were not measured. Likewise, in studies of host-plant resistance, nutritional suitability was not usually measured. In melons, resistance is conferred by the Vat gene. The cause of the resistance appears to be due to a modified phloem sealing physiology that reduces the quantity of sap an aphid can extract from each feeding site.
Furthermore, the phloem they do get has reduced total protein Chen et al. A novel approach to pest management has been the idea of eliciting natural defences in plants using mechanical wounding, infection, or sprays of elicitors. Jasmonic acid applied to cotton plants in California, USA, reduced survival and decreased the number of progeny per leaf Omer et al.
A similar experiment was done in China, where cotton plants were physically wounded, and some wounds were infected with a bacterium Pseudomona gladioli D Wounded plants had fewer aphids and it was less likely that wounded plants would be infested. Infestation frequency and aphid abundance on infested plants was further reduced if the bacterium was present Li et al.
The phenomenon is widespread, and occurs naturally. A similar study was conducted on cucumber with infection by Cladosporium cucumerinum Moran,but without physically damaging the plants.
In this system A. Wind induced mechanical stress can increase peroxidase activity in cucumber, and with at least 12 days of wind stress can result in detectable reductions in aphid populations Moran and Cipollini, However, Moran also found that this mechanical stress can increase pathogen susceptibility.
The opposite of host plant defence would be induced susceptibility. For example, cotton plants fertilized with high nitrogen are better hosts for A. Chemical Control A wide array of chemicals have been used to control A. In a few cases, chemical treatments have resulted in more damage than would have occurred without the treatment. The mechanism for this effect is not known, but contributing factors include the removal of beneficial organisms predators and parasitesstimulation of aphid reproduction, and changes in plant physiology due to the application of the chemical.
Resistance development has been a problem associated with the following insecticides. However, studies in this area suffer from an inability to differentiate between phenotypic plasticity versus differences in aphid genotype as selected by host plant Ebert and Cartwright, Resistance to fenvalerate was increased 29, after 16 generations of selection in a strain reared on cotton or cucumber, and resistance to imidacloprid was increased 8.
There was cross resistance to fenvalerate in aphids exposed to imidacloprid, but aphids exposed to fenvalerate did not show a cross resistance to imidacloprid. Resistance to fenvalerate was greater in aphids on cotton, but there did not appear to be a host plant difference in resistance levels to imidacloprid Wang et al.
Other than this, there was no consistency in the level of resistance and host plant. Toxicity rank of pesticides changed depending on host plant Juneja and Sharma, There can be an interaction between host-plant resistance and pesticide resistance in A. In some cases, pesticide resistance in A. Aphids reared on melons or cucumbers showed elevated aliesterase levels relative to aphids from aubergines or potatoes Saito, This represents a difference between two strains of A.
Significant differences in esterase patterns and esterase quantity have been reported, and differences with insecticide resistance Furk et al. While mixed function oxidases may play a role in detoxification reactions, the esterases and carboxylesterases showed more conspicuous differences between susceptible and resistant aphid strains Sun et al.
The biological cost of resistance for an organophosphate-resistant aphid feeding on cotton has been examined. Over the first few days resistant alate A. However, the reproductive rate during the first few reproductive events are the most influential in determining population growth rate O’ Brien, Peroxidase levels in salivary glands, sheath material and salivary excretions of A.
For this reason, the role of salivary gland enzymes in detoxification has been examined as a possible defence. While the peroxidases were effective in detoxifying hordenine and gossypol, the role of these enzymes in the natural habitat of A. Acetylcholinesterase AChE insensitivity was shown in A.
Furthermore, activity level of AChE has been correlated with pirimicarb resistance Suzuki and Hama, ; Silver et al. For two clones this resistance was shown to be specific to pirimicarb Silver et al. These clones were times more resistant than the susceptible clone, but no more than 22 times more resistant to six organophosphates, six carbamates and two pyrethroids.
The mechanism was linked to AChE with higher catalytic activity and lower affinity to pirimicarb in the resistant clones. Life stage is another factor affecting the susceptibility of A.
Factors which may result in pest resurgence other than a reduction gosxypii natural enemies have been examined. Cotton fields treated with sulprophos had elevated numbers of A.
Although altered plant physiology may taxonomix for A. Direct applications of deltamethrin and carbaryl stimulated the reproductive rate of A. Different host plants can play a direct role in detoxification of the insecticide Owusu et al. Imidacloprid was observed to stimulate the production of alates in the USA Conway et al. While six times as many alates were produced in imidacloprid treated plots, these aphids had significantly reduced fecundity.
There are computer-based systems under development in Australia Hearn et al. Transgenic plants are used to manage other pests in crops where A. In China, it was shown that A. Economic Threshold Levels Despite the lack of quantitative data on exact yield reductions caused by A.
Gossypiii a damage index, a rating of for seedling cotton with fewer than three leaves, and a rating of for larger plants was recommended for treating cotton in China Zhang et al. The EIL for A. Abdelrahman AA; Munir B, Sudanese experience in integrated pest management of cotton.
Insect Science and its Application, 10 6: Response of selected predator species to different densities of Aphis gossypii and Heliothis virescens eggs. Environmental Entomology, 7 3: Effect of spraying cotton plants during the early season against cotton aphid on cotton pests, natural enemies and some crop characters in Southern Egypt.
Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, gossypiii 4: Effectiveness of syrphid flies in greenhouses. Biological and chemical methods of plant protection [chief editor Popushoi, I. Note on some aphids affecting economically important plants in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51 9: Differences in susceptibility of six cucumber cultivars to infestation by Aphis gossypii Glov.
Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 32 4: Developmental rates and fecundity of apterous Aphis gossypii on seedlings of Gossypium hirsutum. Southwestern Entomologist, 14 3: Akkaya A; Uygun N, Faunistic studies on harmful and beneficial insects on cucurbit vegetables in the Southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.
New records of aphid species Hemiptera: Aphidoidea for the Turkish fauna from Samsun province. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34 3: